Thermal Effect of Activity, also known as Activity Level, determines additional energy expenditure due to moving around and exercising. According to Lyle McDonald, broadly speaking, there are 5 categories / activity levels. We readjusted the multipliers from Lyle McDonald's book to better reflect different activity levels that work for most people.

I started Keto 100 days ago after seeing numerous family members losing a lot of weight and inches. They are getting good blood results from their doctors too. I did some research before I started and found many pro’s and con’s but decided the pro’s out weighed the con’s as long as my medical team approves. I have lost 22lbs but more important I’m down many percentage points in body fat (17.35% total now) during this time and have just received the most amazing blood work results I’ve had in years, I’m 60 years old. I told my nurse practictioner and my cardiologist how I’m eating and my N.P. said she doesn’t know enough about it but wants to know all I could tell her and my cardiologist said different diets work for different people but keep doing what I’m doing, they both just want to keep monitoring my progress with blood work and followups. I really feel the best I’ve been in a long while. When I reach a body fat percetage I’m comfortable with I might boost my carbs up to 50grams per day and decrease the fats a bit. My cardiologist says I don’t care what you eat on Friday night but the rest of the week be very mindful of your diet and blood work never lies. I can live with that.
And by pink salt I mean pink Himalayan mineral salt. I sprinkle this stuff on everything! On my food, in my water – you name it, pink salt is in it. Not only does it make my food taste AMAZING, but the benefits of pink salt are insane, especially when it comes to Keto flu. Pink Himalayan salt contains up to 84 different minerals, a fantastic source of magnesium (almost 80% of people are deficient in!), promotes a healthy PH balance, helps regulate blood sugar levels (this is huge for Keto and staying in ketosis), and helps regulate the body’s natural sleep cycle.

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Meanwhile, military researchers are focused on keto diets as well, believing soldiers could operate optimally on fewer, denser meals. Currently, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Defense, and NASA are all running ketogenic experiments. NASA believes the diet will be important in manned missions to Mars because it protects against higher levels of radiation in space by increasing the brain’s resilience to stress. Plus, “the energy density of a ketogenic diet is higher, so you have to carry less weight,” says D’Agostino.
Here’s why. All of these effects take time, but a reasonable explanation as to why the keto diet leads to rapid weight loss is due to the loss of water weight. One of the concerns with the keto diet is the loss of muscle mass and the depletion of glycogen stores. Glycogen, which stores our glucose, also stores water, so when stores are depleted, we flush out excess water. In other words, that rapid weight loss isn’t fat, it’s just water.

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When I first started my keto experience, I didn’t have much fruit. I would occasionally have one strawberry or 1/4 cup of frozen fruit, but I kept it to a minimum. Now, the good news is that fruit sugar is different than white sugar. First of all, the fruit has fiber in it. Unlike eating white sugar which goes straight into the bloodstream and is combated with insulin spikes, the fiber in fruit is harder to digest, so it doesn’t cause your body to react in the same way. So a little fruit can be a good thing.
Thank you SO much for your blog post. My niece went into Ketoacidosis recently and I compared it to what a former RN in my neighborhood has been doing & recommending to everyone (& they believe her because she used to be a nurse, but definitely NOT a Dietitian). Anyway, after reading, I learned they are completely different, however if a healthy person does test for ketones in their blood, what are acceptable levels? (This same nurse tests for ketone levels). I appreciate how much work you put into this write-up and honest feedback! (I work with 2 RDs who agree with you!)

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Basically, in the context of dieting, dieters can either jack up dietary protein to cover the increased carbohydrate requirements of dieting or simply eat slightly more carbohydrates to provide them directly. Both have the same end-result. 15-50 grams per day limits the body’s need to break down protein and will allow protein requirements to be set lower than a diet providing essentially zero carbohydrates per day.


Some shellfish like oysters and mussels contain some carbohydrates, so take that into consideration when eating out. The easiest thing to do is PLAN. Before you go out, find the restaurant’s menu and nutrition info if possible (if not just read the menu carefully and don’t be afraid to ask questions). This is just another reason to make sure you are using My Fitness Pal to calculate your meals, and if you have the app, you can add them while you wait for your food!
Having said that, there are also studies suggesting that long term carbohydrate restriction diets (aka. the keto diet) may result in fast short term weight loss but people gain it all back in the long term. An RCT put 63 individuals on a low-fat diet or a low carb diet, and the study found the low carb dieters lost more weight compared to the low fat group by month 3 and 6, but that the weight loss evened out by month 12. This was confirmed by a Meta-analysis which found that while low-carbers lost more weight than low-fat dieters but the differences disappeared by the one year mark.

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A ketogenic diet may be an option for some people who have had difficulty losing weight with other methods.  The exact ratio of fat, carbohydrate, and protein that is needed to achieve health benefits will vary among individuals due to their genetic makeup and body composition. Therefore, if one chooses to start a ketogenic diet, it is recommended to consult with one’s physician and a dietitian to closely monitor any biochemical changes after starting the regimen, and to create a meal plan that is tailored to one’s existing health conditions and to prevent nutritional deficiencies or other health complications. A dietitian may also provide guidance on reintroducing carbohydrates once weight loss is achieved.

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Slow cooking is also great for those who aren’t comfortable using a stove or an oven as slow cookers typically need minimal preparation and food is all prepared in one pot. This is also a great alternative to other books which typically rely on standard cooking infrastructure such as a stovetop. So, if you are a fan of the crockpot or simply looking to expand your ketogenic cooking repertoire, this is one of the best keto cookbooks you will find.

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So for all the dangers you listed on this, my dietician prescribes this diet to everyone who comes into his office looking for weightloss, he has a stack of packets with standardized information regarding the specific diet. For what it’s worth, most of the side effects you listed, I did go through, although the sugar withdrawal was the worst, but after a couple weeks, that passed too. Now I’m on the same 1200 calorie, <20g carb, 0 sugar diet, and it feels VERY sustainable. The only thing I really miss is pizza, and even then, there are keto friendly chicken based crusts that really hit the spot. I guess one thing that sticks out to me is my doctor told me that the human body doesn't need any sugar to survive, and while he makes the distinction between simple and complex carbs, still cuts them out in a normal keto diet style (no potatoes, corn, most beans in larger quantities, etc). Should I be concerned about my doctor? He came as a referral and has a large track record of long term success with his patients.
People claiming huge benefits of these supplements – despite the lack of solid scientific support – may sometimes have a financial reason to believe in the supplements. Some of these products are sold under a multi-level marketing arrangement, where sales people are paid based on commission. For example, the company Prüvit sells drinkable ketones, called KETO//OS with a multi-level marketing structure.

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Some shellfish like oysters and mussels contain some carbohydrates, so take that into consideration when eating out. The easiest thing to do is PLAN. Before you go out, find the restaurant’s menu and nutrition info if possible (if not just read the menu carefully and don’t be afraid to ask questions). This is just another reason to make sure you are using My Fitness Pal to calculate your meals, and if you have the app, you can add them while you wait for your food! 

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My Family went on Keto, it works for my son and his wife, but for me not so much. I was so sick for the 6 weeks I was on it, and when my heart started pounding several times a day – seriously thought I was having a heart attack, got weird rashes and my kidneys started hurting, I knew it was time to stop keto. I did loose 15lbs and have been able to still loose a few lbs on the low carb Mediterranean diet in the past 2 weeks, My son lost 25lbs and his wife lost 20lbs so far and they did not have the side effects I had.
I do want to point out an inaccuracy in your description of ketoacidosis. If a Type 1 diabetic “and/or does not eat enough carbohydrates,” they will not enter a state of ketoacidosis. It is the opposite. Ketoacidosis can occur if a diabetic consumes carbs without having enough insulin to allow the body to use glucose for energy. In contrast, not eating enough carbohydrates for insulin that was already injected causes hypoglycemia.

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You’re transitioning. Your body is equipped to process a high intake of carbs and a lower intake of fat. Your body needs to create enzymes to be able to do this. In the transitional period, the brain may run low on energy which can lead to grogginess, nausea, and headaches. If you’re having a large problem with this, you can choose to reduce carb intake gradually.

As someone who is prediabetic, Keto has been a godsend! I thought I was just a glutton, but now I’m certain I am actually insulin resistant. I am on Keto and can manage half a cup of blackberries without coming out of ketosis, but almost any other carb/sugar and I become a mindless food consuming zombie. I literally feel like I have zero control over my ability to stop eating. Also before trying Keto, if I was not able to eat constantly throughout the day I became grumpy and tired. Like none tired where it felt like I had lead running through my veins. On Keto, I can go a good 5-7 hours without eating and I don’t feel off at all. I am hoping to lose weight, but mostly I do not want to become diabetic and my problem is that I am insulin resistant. I do plan eventually to eat more black beans, vegetables and fruits again. Maybe a little chocolate on holidays and cake and ice cream on my

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Look, keto is simple. Please stop complicating it. You can honestly eat any food and stay in ketosis as long as you eat less than 25-50 grams of carbs a day. If you are an athlete you can eat up to 100 carbs per day. No food, I repeat NO FOOD is a keto food. Like hummus? Eat it! Like pineapple? Eat it! Unless you have a metabolic disease that causes your body to be super sensitive to sugar you can eat pretty much any whole food and remain in ketosis. 

Hello, I’m Abbey! I'm a Registered Dietitian (RD), an avid food and recipe writer, a TV nutrition expert and spokesperson, a YouTube host and the founder of Abbey’s Kitchen Inc. Abbey's Kitchen is a multi- faceted food and nutrition media brand developed with the goal of celebrating the pleasurable eating experience. For more information about me, check out my bio here.

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So where did the ketogenic diet come from? Interestingly enough, this fad diet didn’t spark from a celebrity endorsement or some guy missing a medical license. There’s evidence of the keto diet being used back in the early 1920s to treat severe childhood epilepsy and it’s still being used today for that purpose. Research suggests that the production of ketones may influence neurotransmitter activity in neurons allowing for a reduction in seizure attacks. A recent Cochrane Review demonstrated a 30-40% reduction in seizures compared with non-keto diet controls. One thing to keep in mind, however (which is a theme when discussing the keto diet) is that it’s generally difficult to adhere to and difficult to tolerate for a lot of people. In other words, people go on it and then come off it pretty damn quick.
I am Keto proponent. I have been through muscle cramps when missing greens while riding my bike for 100 km in 5.5 hours (and I am going on 64!) Getting kale and spinach and parsley is a must, getting the fruit whole is a must. Consumption of “good” fats like coco, olive, avocado oils definitely does not hurt. Consumption of meat – and of organs, yes, organs – is very important. And finally, monitoring the body reaction and measuring ketones and glucose helps; I am doing observations regularly. What about G=4.2 and K=.3 in the morning? It is not ketogenic state per se, but in the morning my muscles do not need much fuel, and my frontal cortex and red blood cells need only minimum glucose. What about G=5.4 and K=3.6 in the third hour of bike ride, with acetone in the breath high and ketone disposal in urine very low? What about post-exercise levels of G=4.4 and K=1.2, with almost no acetone in breath and urine levels going sky-high because the body needs not ketones any more?
Done Keto diet for over a year now. I started it due to increased liver enzymes showing a start on a path towards low-level diabetes due to being about 30 lbs overweight (229 lbs, 5’10” endomorphic, muscular build). After a year, my Cholesterol is excellent, I dropped to 192 lbs (37 lbs lost), maintained muscle mass through maintenance workouts and cardio, resting heart rate is 50bpm, EKG shows perfect results, blood pressure is excellent, and full panel of bloodwork shows zero abnormal liver enzymes.

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Let’s face it: a ketogenic diet is not the easiest diet to follow — or understand! This is why we love books that simplify the process, like Keto Made Easy: 100+ Easy Keto Dishes Made Fast to Fit Your Life. You don’t have to miss out on your favorite foods with these easy-to-follow, easy-to-make recipes from this popular food blogger duo. It also has five meal plans for different kinds of keto diets, including vegetarian. A Bible for many keto dieters, Leanne Vogel’s The Keto Diet Book: The Complete Guide to a High-Fat Diet not only boasts 125 recipes but also is a great resource chock full of information to answer your every question about this sometimes perplexing diet. We love that it has five 28-day meal plans, taking the stress out of planning every meal for weeks or even months on end.
Cutting out a whole food group (or in this case, more than one) is a dietitian’s worse nightmare. It not only makes it a really hard diet to follow, but also stresses the hell out of your body and makes it work a lot harder to keep up. In a US News & World Report’s review of 2018 diet, the ketogenic diet came in last place as a sustainable means to weight loss because of its restrictive nature.

A: The most common ways to track your carbs is through MyFitnessPal and their mobile app. You cannot track net carbs on the app, although you can track your total carb intake and your total fiber intake. To get your net carbs, just subtract your total fiber intake from your total carb intake. I have written an article on How to Track Carbs on MyFitnessPal.
Your glycogen stores can still be refilled while on a ketogenic diet. A keto diet is an excellent way to build muscle, but protein intake is crucial here. It’s suggested that if you are looking to gain mass, you should be taking in about 1.0 – 1.2g protein per lean pound of body mass. Putting muscle on may be slower on a ketogenic diet, but that’s because your total body fat is not increasing as much.5Note that in the beginning of a ketogenic diet, both endurance athletes and obese individuals see a physical performance for the first week of transition.
No one is trying to diminish your success, but it does not work for everyone, and studies show it can have long term negative effects on your overall health. If you look at the Meta-analysis it shows a calorie restricted diet and Keto for 12 weeks had the same weight loss. There are also many studies that suggest looking back at people after one year those on a calorie restricted diet kept more of their weight off. The only one it does better than is just a low fat diet, which Dieticians stopped suggesting long ago. And as Health Care professionals we read the “REAL SCIENCE” not the internet articles, You Tube, Blog, book writers. One of the books written about it by Dr. Jason Fung. Have you looked him up on PUBMED? He has not written one article published in a real medical journal to be such an expert. It is not magic, it is not a cure. If you like the diet and it does not mess up your cholesterol then so be it but promoting it to others not knowing their medical history can be dangerous. What people don’t realize is that for year’s we have known that if you lose 7-10% of your own body weight your blood sugars will improve, cholesterol, and blood pressure. But you don’t have to do the fasting and put more burden on your Liver or potentially increase your risk for cardiac problems eating such high fat. If you do high fat at least do plant fats and not animal fats. But of course everyone is happy with your success but just keep a tab on your lab work.
I’ve had many people ask for a Keto Grocery List. At first, I was hesitant because I am a picky eater and tend to stick to the same foods over and over. I know that most people eat a larger variety of foods than I do. At the same time, when I was researching Keto Grocery Lists, so many seemed overwhelming and included many foods that even after almost a year of following a Keto Diet I have never used.

Since our body isn’t used to using ketones, we tend to feel flu-like when in ketosis. Lots of brain fog, fatigue, headaches, nausea and poor endurance. You also get bad smelling breath, sweat and pee from the acetone (a byproduct of fat metabolism). Sexy? Not so much. Thankfully, if you are in ketosis long enough, a lot of people report that most of these side effects start to go away.


Fats are an important staple of any keto diet. But it’s the quality of your dietary fat that matters.Saturated fats like coconut oil and grass-fed butter are excellent options for cooking. Oils like extra virgin oil are best reserved for unheated uses, like homemade salad dressings. Nuts and seeds make great snacks, or your can sprinkle them on salads and other veggie dishes. Just watch your nut intake. While they’re high in many healthy fats, some of them also contain a lot of carbs.

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Thank you SO much for your blog post. My niece went into Ketoacidosis recently and I compared it to what a former RN in my neighborhood has been doing & recommending to everyone (& they believe her because she used to be a nurse, but definitely NOT a Dietitian). Anyway, after reading, I learned they are completely different, however if a healthy person does test for ketones in their blood, what are acceptable levels? (This same nurse tests for ketone levels). I appreciate how much work you put into this write-up and honest feedback! (I work with 2 RDs who agree with you!)
Since adopting my current way of eating, I became much less “skinny fat” and have been able to increase muscle tone by doing less than 1 hour of exercise a day. All I’ve had to do is cut out foods like bread and pizza, and I still get my necessary fibre from breakfast cereals, veg, or rye crackers. I’m still able to meet my calorie goal so fundamentally I’m not doing damage to my body; it’s not a fad diet.
Once you know what you will be eating on keto, you will probably be wondering how much of you should eat for each meal. Since meal size depends on the individual and his/her goals, we recommend using a calorie tracking app and our carb tracking guide to help you figure out the macronutrient content of your meals. As you track your macros, you will be able to figure out what adjusts you need to make to your diet to reach your goals.
Besides healthy fats like chicken thighs, olive oil, avocado oil, and high-quality bone broth, there are several specialty ingredients that you will find in many keto recipes such as keto friendly sweeteners, flours, and chocolates. There are several different sweeteners on the list, but purchasing all of them isn’t necessary. I’ve listed some of my favorite Keto Grocery List items below that you’ll need for baking, low carb bread, and keto desserts.
So one study looked at the long-term effects of a keto diet in obese patients and after 24 weeks, patients lost weight, reduced their total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and increased their HDL. Another study conducted on 132 obese patients found that the low carb (keto) group lost more weight than the low fat group while improving biomarkers like decreased triglycerides, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased fasting glucose. This all was confirmed in a 2013 meta-analysis, 13 RCTs (1,569 participants) found that patients assigned to a very low carbohydrate diet resulted in greater weight loss compared to those assigned to a low-fat diet.

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Hi Leigh, I like to inform myself before I make my arguments, so I try to do as much research as possible. Same goes for when I was looking into the keto diet. I’m so glad you’ve seen improvements with the keto diet. I still believe that for the majority of people, the keto diet has its side effects and may not be successful. If it helps some people, then I’m glad!
When you approach your normal body weight, the weight loss will slow. Just remember, a “normal” body weight differs from person to person depending on our genetics and environmental exposures and may not fit what we see in the popular media. The weight loss won’t go on forever. As long as you follow the advice to eat when you are hungry, you will eventually stabilize your weight.
Once you know what you will be eating on keto, you will probably be wondering how much of you should eat for each meal. Since meal size depends on the individual and his/her goals, we recommend using a calorie tracking app and our carb tracking guide to help you figure out the macronutrient content of your meals. As you track your macros, you will be able to figure out what adjusts you need to make to your diet to reach your goals.

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I give you points for not completely bashing the Keto diet but I have to ask you why do you think it is hard to follow? Do you tell vegans that their diet in unsustainable? I know for myself I can go to almost any restaurant and eat a keto meal the same could not be said with vegans. A properly balanced keto diet would require no vitamins or minerals (the reason for Keto “Flu”) the same can not be said for vegans, most vegans have major deficiencies and some vitamins like B12 are near impossible to obtain without supplements.
if this is true how did humans survive before agriculture? high carbohydrate foods simply didn’t exist in abundance before the agriculture age. Hundreds of thousands of years of evolution where humans would hunt for their food, and in between hunting eat whatever berries grew nearby….going days at a time or even weeks without food our bodies HAD to evolve into a state where they could conserve and store it’s energy then supply us with that energy burst for when that deer wandered by. Ketones are that energy source. Glucose simply doesn’t last long enough for us to survive and still have the energy to hunt. A little over 10,000 years of agriculture cannot undo hundreds of thousands of years of evolution.
Anyways, I am feeling so much better without the weight, my sleep apnea is gone, my blood glucose is lower and the edema in my legs is gone. But I do have concerns about the saturated fat, my HDL/LDL and I do not like the “nail polish breath”. Once I reach my goal, I plan to transition to more of a Mediterranean style diet but still with logging and I hope to be able to keep the weight off.

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Having said that, there are also studies suggesting that long term carbohydrate restriction diets (aka. the keto diet) may result in fast short term weight loss but people gain it all back in the long term. An RCT put 63 individuals on a low-fat diet or a low carb diet, and the study found the low carb dieters lost more weight compared to the low fat group by month 3 and 6, but that the weight loss evened out by month 12. This was confirmed by a Meta-analysis which found that while low-carbers lost more weight than low-fat dieters but the differences disappeared by the one year mark.

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So one study looked at the long-term effects of a keto diet in obese patients and after 24 weeks, patients lost weight, reduced their total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and increased their HDL. Another study conducted on 132 obese patients found that the low carb (keto) group lost more weight than the low fat group while improving biomarkers like decreased triglycerides, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased fasting glucose. This all was confirmed in a 2013 meta-analysis, 13 RCTs (1,569 participants) found that patients assigned to a very low carbohydrate diet resulted in greater weight loss compared to those assigned to a low-fat diet.

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I appreciate your approach to the keto diet it is the most unbiased I’ve seen. I decided to take a more mindful approach to the keto diet. I took the allotted carbohydrates and decided to count the net carbohydrates. I researched the most healthy vegetables highest in nutrition value and antioxidants and use those for my net carbohydrate allowance. Then using my lean muscle mass calculated the necessary amount of protein using the healthiest options like lean chicken breast fish with no bacon and no fatty Meats. I decided to get my fat grams from avocado olive oil and coconut oil. Monitored my micronutrients and supplemented them as necessary to reach the daily requirement. Using a vegetables I attempt to get the highest fiber possible and supplement the rest. I’ve changed my concept of what is cheating on a diet to indulging in fresh pineapple and watermelon raspberries blueberries and blackberries. Grains have always caused problems with feeling bad gastric bloating and water gain for me. So it was not difficult to decide to leave those off research the nutrition and a tip to substitute. as far as gaining all the weight back if you return to the diet that got you overweight you can only expect to get it back. A calorie Surplus will put on weight. As I near my goal I will increase the carbohydrates using the healthy foods I have grown accustomed to to achieve the highest level of carbohydrates that does not have me regain the fat. Because remember my protein intake was based on my muscle mass. As I follow the diet I am mindful of the behavior changes choices that caused me to gain weight and there is no getting off the diet there is only bringing balance to the macronutrients. If dietitians everywhere find my Approach unhealthy that is their opinion they have a right to. I’m using this strict limited diet initially for the weight loss success as a positive reinforcer while modifying my behavior using the healthiest food choices. Which does not include heavy cream butter and fatty Meats.

The last book we’re looking at in this keto cookbook list is Simply Keto: A Practical Approach to Health & Weight Loss by Suzanne Ryan. What’s great about these recipes is that most of the recipes come from a personal place in Suzanne’s heart. This book details her transformation to the keto diet and how her body transformed as she lost over 100 pounds. This was solely due to the lifestyle choices she made as part of this transformation. The book offers a number of recipes which are ketogenic forward (more than 100). It also offers a number of supplementary additions. These additions include helpful tips and hints for those looking to kickstart their life in keto.

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The keto diet is high in fat, moderate protein, and low in carbs. You will avoid foods that are high in carbs, including some fruits and vegetables, most vegetable oils (like canola and corn oil) sugar, and grains, to name a few. Instead of going over all the foods to avoid, it is easier to print the keto grocery list pdf at the bottom of this post and stick to those keto foods for simplicity.

I have to thank you for presenting a more rational view of keto than I have seen presented by other dietitians. However I am a Type 1 diabetic, and ahem, also a registered dietitian and since finding keto a year ago would not have any reservation in guiding a pt, especially a diabetic, to eat keto. I find the diet far less restrictive than a vegetarian or vegan diet, and food cravings have completely been eliminated. I’m far more satiated when I eat and I have no problem adhering to this way of eating. The fact that dietitians advise eating 45-60 g CHO per meal to a diabetic (someone who essentially has a carb intolerance) is absolutely ludicrous to me. As a T1D I’m off the blood sugar roller coaster, no longer have dangerous lows and have achieved an A1c of 5.1, which means no long-term complications. I think the main fear in the mainstream media comes from that F word–fat. With the dawn of the low-fat era in the 1960s, sugar and carb consumption skyrocketed, fat consumption plummeted and what happened as a result? Yes, that’s right, rates of overweight and obesity skyrocketed. Insulin is the body’s primary fat storage hormone and carb consumption triggers insulin. The reason a keto diet works for weight loss (more than just water weight from loss of glycogen stores) is because insulin levels stay low, which allows for the mobilization of fat.
What really killed it for me was the unrealistic restrictions of the entire day carbs count you should end up with – there is no f***ing way I can get by one full day with 20 grams of carbs and under. Just one of my meals ended up with at least 15 grams of carbs (half small onion-small red bell pepper-half cup chopped mushrooms-cup green beans), sometimes 20-25, times 4-5 meals (amature bodybuilder) and I end up with ~100 grams of carbs per day, at least.

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A: The amount of weight you lose is entirely dependent on you. Obviously adding exercise to your regimen will speed up your weight loss. Cutting out things that are common “stall” causes is also a good thing. Artificial sweeteners, dairy, wheat products and by-products (wheat gluten, wheat flours, and anything with an identifiable wheat product in it). 

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My submission is, that a healthy body – liver, pancreas, kidneys – know how to maintain the right balance and produce or dispose of fuel, either glycogen or ketones as needed. I disagree that glucose is the favorite fuel, it is only the easy fast fuel for the body, which has one great advantage – PERFORMANCE! Both muscle and brain, fast performance is fueled by carbs. But, for ENDURANCE, it is ketones which are the best fuel, and moreover, burning ketones leaves less waste to be disposed off. I think that for athletes, the challenge is how to find the right performance-endurance balance.

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