A huge concern with the keto diet is the maintenance and potential loss of muscle mass. Many people will just think: hey, dummy, then just eat more protein. However, some research has shown that even if your protein intake remains constant, a low carb diet may promote muscle loss. A study from the Netherlands confirmed these findings. In the study, participants were given three diets (high carb, moderate carb, low carb) and moderate protein. The study found that those following a low carb diet experienced increased muscle breakdown. This is because when we eat carbohydrates, we produce insulin which promotes muscle growth. This is why athletes depend on carbohydrates (along with protein) to fuel their performance. When we eat carbs, the insulin release “unlocks” our muscles to let the protein in so it can do its job at building our muscles. So, when we skip the carbs all together, muscle glycogen stores get depleted, we lose out on those muscle building opportunities. Forget about high intensity training. A depleted glycogen store also means our workouts will suffer because we just don’t have enough oil left in the tank. This was a again suggested in the recent review looking at many ketogenic studies. The studies found that there was greater lean body mass loss in the ketogenic groups compared to the other diets being studied.
Both states are normal to the human body, although many people live without experiencing a state of ketosis. In traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, people regularly cycled in and out of ketosis. Most of these cultures lacked consistent access to carbohydrates. In seasons where carbs were unavailable, or when food was very scarce, blood sugar levels would plummet.
I tried the ketogenic diet and it really helped me even out my energy levels and I don’t grave sugar anymore. I had issues absorbing my B vitamins. I had high candida and l-acidophylis levels. I was also addicted to sugar. I started this 3 years ago, and since about a year ago, I’ve added fruit. Now I enjoy a little rice and potatoes as well. I even had a bite of chocolate cake and didn’t die. I started out at 112, lost 10 pounds within a month and have slowly gained most of it back. I am happy I did it, but I will be more confident to add more carbs, although it will mostly be in the form of more fruit and starchy veggies. Thanks for your article.

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It may be because all we have ever known is what we have been told by the FDA or who are the people in our country that tell you what you should eat. Do you realize how much money is in the grain , corn and sugar business in this country? A lot more than you can imagine. Bottom line I think its money telling people what they should eat. I’m gonna try the diet and see if it helps me. Thx for letting me voice my opinion.
Abbey, I appreciate all the work you put into this but there are a few things you missed. Not all oils are keto friendly. Vegetable oils are a huge no-no which was not mentioned. Regular mayo usually contains soybean oil which should be avoided. You also missed that foods with preservatives are a no-no which excludes some cheeses (you said enjoy all the cheese you like). Processed sliced cheese or pre-shredded cheese in a bag at the grocery store contains preservatives. Ever notice how shredded cheese in a bag never sticks to itself but when you shred your own cheese it sticks? Preservatives. Most nuts are okay but peanuts are a legume and should be consumed in very small amounts or avoided altogether. Don’t go crazy either, nuts do have carbs. I don’t eat more than a half cup a day of salted almonds. That said, you could have mentioned that getting salted nuts is ideal as you do excrete more salt and other minerals in your urine (eating keto is diuretic so attention must be paid to salt, potassium, magnesium, etc. as you did mention) so finding simple ways to add salt and other minerals is helpful. I also take a multi-vitamin daily. You mentioned you cannot do high intensity workouts. You are not supposed to do high intensity workouts as elevating your heart rate too high actually stops the fat burning process in your body. Your heart rate should be 180 beats minus your age +/- 5 beats depending on fitness level. A 40 year old obese person shouldn’t go over 135 beats/min during a workout as that is the optimal fat burning window. Higher than that and your body reverts to storing fat reserves thinking it will run out if it keeps this pace. Which bring me to metabolism. Its been long believed a high metabolism is good. A high metabolism leads to more hunger (because you’re burning glucose faster), ingesting more food, and typically gaining more weight. Slowing your metabolism down AND teaching your body to consume slow burning ketones instead of quick burning glucose puts less stress on your liver mainly and on your body in general. There’s a lot more but this is getting long so I’ll finish with this. You said this diet focuses on quantity of food and not quality. This is confusing to me….wouldn’t organic and grass-fed meats, be of better quality than non-organic and grain fed meat? (they feed animals grains to fatten them up….shouldn’t that be a huge warning sign for us?). Is food without preservatives not better quality than food with preservatives? Aren’t beverages with no sugar or artificial sweeteners of better quality than sugar/artificial sweetener-filled beverages? I’ve never seen any keto advocate advise ignoring quality foods, in fact its quite the opposite.

Thank you SO much for your blog post. My niece went into Ketoacidosis recently and I compared it to what a former RN in my neighborhood has been doing & recommending to everyone (& they believe her because she used to be a nurse, but definitely NOT a Dietitian). Anyway, after reading, I learned they are completely different, however if a healthy person does test for ketones in their blood, what are acceptable levels? (This same nurse tests for ketone levels). I appreciate how much work you put into this write-up and honest feedback! (I work with 2 RDs who agree with you!)
The findings below have been limited to research specific to the ketogenic diet: the studies listed contain about 70-80% fat, 10-20% protein, and 5-10% carbohydrate. Diets otherwise termed “low carbohydrate” may not include these specific ratios, allowing higher amounts of protein or carbohydrate. Therefore only diets that specified the terms “ketogenic” or “keto,” or followed the macronutrient ratios listed above were included in this list below. In addition, though extensive research exists on the use of the ketogenic diet for other medical conditions, only studies that examined ketogenic diets specific to obesity or overweight were included in this list. (This paragraph was added to provide additional clarity on 5.7.18.)
When I first started my keto experience, I didn’t have much fruit. I would occasionally have one strawberry or 1/4 cup of frozen fruit, but I kept it to a minimum. Now, the good news is that fruit sugar is different than white sugar. First of all, the fruit has fiber in it. Unlike eating white sugar which goes straight into the bloodstream and is combated with insulin spikes, the fiber in fruit is harder to digest, so it doesn’t cause your body to react in the same way. So a little fruit can be a good thing. 

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Next up is The Ketogenic Cookbook by Jimmy Moore and Maria Emmerich. This is another great resource for anyone on a keto diet. It has over 200 recipes, beautiful photography, and features good, simple food. The large number of recipes will ensure that you will never be stumped when deciding what to make. The Ketogenic Cookbook is a near encyclopedia from some of the best writers in the world of ketogenic diets. They understand the need to offer legible, understandable meal options for those who may not be too familiar with the diet. This is why it is such a great resource for beginners to the keto diet.

But for evidence of the Keto Diet’s more immediate effects, Noakes brings up South African athlete Bruce Fordyce, 60, who won the country’s biggest ultramarathon, the 56-mile Comrades, a record nine times. He ate high-carb his whole life, eventually putting on weight and becoming insulin resistant. Recently, though, he switched to a high-fat diet—and has regained his former waistline and dramatically improved his marathon times. Little by little, according to Noakes, we’re learning. “This is the single most important health intervention we can make as doctors,” he says. “And as nations.”

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To meet your macros most efficiently, try combining high protein with high-fat foods or have foods that are both high in protein and fat at every meal. For example, having a fatty fish or fatty cut of meat with high-protein cheese (and low carb vegetables) is a simple and easy way to have a keto-friendly meal that will help you meet your protein and fat needs. On the other hand, if you just want to increase your fat intake, then find ways to add oil, animal fats, butter, fat bombs, and/or high-fat cheeses to your meals or snacks.

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The biggest thing I’m trying to find out more about is the state of Ketosis. Is being in Ketosis a good thing? Does the brain need Ketones? If so would supplements help? Some studies such as: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19664276/ seem to say maybe. Would you take Ketone supplements or put yourself into Ketosis as a way to increase your brain health – prevent from developing horrible diseases such as Alzheimers?
There are numerous benefits that come with being on keto: from weight loss and increased energy levels to therapeutic medical applications. Most anyone can safely benefit from eating a low-carb, high-fat diet. Below, you’ll find a short list of the benefits you can receive from a ketogenic diet. For a more comprehensive list, you can also read our in-depth article here >

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Hi, I think Keto is a great starting point. I am almost 60 years old and finally feel good, no fogginess or sluggishness. For the first time I have no hippy handles and my tummy is flatter – no bloating or puffiness and I feel more energetic. I have only been doing Keto for about 4 weeks. I am so happy with the results!! I will continue for another 8 weeks or so then I will add more foods back in BUT moderation is key. I will slowly up my healthy carbs and find what is good for me. Happy days everyone!!! =)
The keto diet also has an impact on our hormonal levels. Many studies have looked at whether the state of ketosis suppresses our appetite through the actions of leptin and ghrelin. A 2013 study found that after patients lost weight on a keto diet, our hunger hormone (ghrelin) was altered and suppressed. A systematic review also concluded that the state of ketosis appears to be a plausible explanation for the suppression of appetite. So this the keto diet may be good for dieters who can’t stand the discomfort of hunger. Finally, the keto diet also may have an impact on our stress hormone, cortisol. This was demonstrated in a Harvard study where the keto diet resulted in an increase in cortisol in individuals following a very low carb keto diet. High levels of cortisol is associated with insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and may promote fat accumulation.

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I achieved my goals without fasting, but fasting is growing to be one of the most healthy ways of eating that are available to a human. The fasting process initiates a lot of systems in the body that remain dormant in a regularly fed human. That, in conjunction with the presence of ketones (which encourage fat consumption for energy), make fasting during ketosis massively effective for both weightloss and a healthy body.

Our online calculators, converters, counters, and content are provided "as is", free of charge, and without any warranty or guarantee. Each tool is carefully developed and rigorously tested, and our content is well-sourced, but despite our best effort it is possible they contain errors. We are not to be held responsible for any resulting damages from proper or improper use of the service. See our full terms of service.

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A typical ketogenic diet is comprised of only 15-25% protein, yet some research indicates that even during a caloric deficit, being in a state of ketosis can preserve muscle mass. It is critical to understand that in some of the literature a low-carbohydrate diet may not actually be a true ketogenic diet. To illustrate, some studies have shown that a very low carbohydrate diet (C:4 F:61 P:35) has similar effects to a traditional low-fat diet (C:70 F:10 P:20) on weight loss. In other words, both groups demonstrated similar losses in fat AND muscle mass (10). However, Dr. Layman (5) performed a study comparing a high protein, moderate fat, and low carbohydrate diet to a high carbohydrate, moderate fat, and moderate protein in conjunction with resistance training. Fat and total calorie intake were equal between experimental groups. Average weight loss was the same between groups but the composition of the weight loss differed. Low-carbohydrate dieters lost more fat mass and less muscle compared to the high carbohydrate group. This data suggests that increasing protein intake during a caloric deficit can help mitigate some of the muscle wasting that often accompanies dieting.

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With that in mind, I created a basic Keto Grocery List as a helpful resource. My goal is to make following a Keto Diet simple. It isn’t necessary to purchase every food item on this list. Consider it a helpful guide when you are at the grocery store. Instead of going out and buying all the foods on this list for the sake of stocking your pantry, I would suggest creating a keto meal plan first. Then, shop weekly for those foods that you need so that you build your keto pantry as needed.
Both states are normal to the human body, although many people live without experiencing a state of ketosis. In traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, people regularly cycled in and out of ketosis. Most of these cultures lacked consistent access to carbohydrates. In seasons where carbs were unavailable, or when food was very scarce, blood sugar levels would plummet.

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First of all, don't weigh yourself more than once a week. There are natural fluctuations related to water retention and hormonal balance. If you are a woman, you will notice these fluctuations more often. If you see no movement on the scales or even if your weight goes up, it doesn't mean you are not losing fat. If you exercise, you may even see a little increase in weight, as muscles are heavier than fat. The important thing here is to concentrate on losing body fat. Don’t rely just on scales, use body tape, calipers, belts or clothes to see any changes.

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Meat – Unprocessed meats are low carb and keto-friendly, and organic and grass-fed meat might be even healthier. But remember that keto is a high-fat diet, not high protein, so you don’t need huge amounts of meat. Excess protein (more than your body needs) is converted to glucose, making it harder to get into ketosis. A normal amount of meat is enough.

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Cheese, if you can tolerate it, can also be purchased in bulk. Many stores offer store-brand cheese in large bricks. You’ll need to make sure to read the labels before you purchase any cheese. Make sure that when you eat cheese to eat some fiber (salad or raw veggies) as well. Having large blocks of your favorite cheeses on hand can make it easy to grab a quick snack between meals.

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Fish are great for keto diets because they offer heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids, and you can dress them up in so many ways. While fish and seafood can be a great choice when dining out, make sure you order with no breading and try to find out exactly what they use to cook and season them. Did you know that black pepper has carbohydrates? It does indeed, which is why it is so important to make sure you know what’s being added to it.

Since adopting my current way of eating, I became much less “skinny fat” and have been able to increase muscle tone by doing less than 1 hour of exercise a day. All I’ve had to do is cut out foods like bread and pizza, and I still get my necessary fibre from breakfast cereals, veg, or rye crackers. I’m still able to meet my calorie goal so fundamentally I’m not doing damage to my body; it’s not a fad diet.


Have been on low carb high fat diet for 5 months. Just had blood work done. Was prediabetic now normal. So lucky to have Dr. who supports lchf and Keto way of eating. Maybe Keto is not right for everyone but it certainly is for huge numbers of people. Personally, I have never felt better and I will keep promoting it to everyone wanting to listen. Pain in knees so much better. I haven’t taken a painkiller in 5 months.
Two years ago, LeBron James famously lost 25 pounds and upped his late-game endurance by cutting carbs and sugars from his diet. Tim Ferriss, the author of the Four-Hour self-improvement book series, followed a strict keto diet to cure his Lyme disease, and performs a long multi-day fast every four months as a means, he says, of pushing ketosis further and starving incipient pre-cancerous cells of sugar (more on that later). Last summer, Sami Inkinen, the ultrafit co-founder of real estate juggernaut Trulia, rowed with his wife from California to Hawaii in record time on a keto diet, to promote high-fat eating and raise awareness about the dangers of too much sugar. The Keto Diet, say its ardent supporters, is a natural way to literally reprogram your metabolism and transition to an upgraded operating system. You’ll ultimately feel better and perform better, and your body fat will plummet.

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Not long after he got the news, he happened to receive an e-mail about a book title The New Atkins for a New You, and realized he recognized many of the authors’ names on the cover, which belonged to respected exercise experts Stephen Phinney, M.D., Ph.D; Jeff Volek, Ph.D., R.D.; and Eric Westman, M.D. They argued that the late Dr. Robert Atkins, who famously promoted a low-carb, high-fat diet in the 1980s—and was routinely lampooned for promoting eggs, bacon, and cheese as healthy foods that worked great for weight loss—had been right all along. The professors backed up their position with more than 50 new dietary studies and an action plan for getting lean and maintaining weight loss. Noakes says he learned more about nutrition that year than in his previous 42 years as a doctor.
Consider buying your meat in bulk. This will save you lots of money if you know where to get family-sized packages of meat. When you buy meat in large quantities, you can also cook it in bulk as well. Taking the time a few days per week to cook meat makes it simple to follow the keto plan. You can cook your meat beforehand and have it ready to go when you need it. You can purchase ground beef, chicken pieces, small steaks and even seafood in bulk.
Don’t be afraid of a banana. Do be afraid of going over your carbs and calories. The same person that will write a hate comment about banans not being keto will sit and eat 10 handfuls of nuts. Guess what, just because you think nuts are a “keto food” you are eating waaaaaayyyyy more calories than you need and you will not lose weight. Keto is not a miracle diet. The laws of science still apply. 
Here’s why. All of these effects take time, but a reasonable explanation as to why the keto diet leads to rapid weight loss is due to the loss of water weight. One of the concerns with the keto diet is the loss of muscle mass and the depletion of glycogen stores. Glycogen, which stores our glucose, also stores water, so when stores are depleted, we flush out excess water. In other words, that rapid weight loss isn’t fat, it’s just water.

A meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials following overweight and obese participants for 1-2 years on either low-fat diets or very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets found that the ketogenic diet produced a small but significantly greater reduction in weight, triglycerides, and blood pressure, and a greater increase in HDL and LDL cholesterol compared with the low-fat diet at one year. [10] The authors acknowledged the small weight loss difference between the two diets of about 2 pounds, and that compliance to the ketogenic diet declined over time, which may have explained the more significant difference at one year but not at two years (the authors did not provide additional data on this).

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Jade, congratulations for your keto approach! I’ve had lots of sugar cravings & binging and keto was my solution for “cooling down” and getting back on track. I am also very careful with animal fat and I tend to get the fats from other sources – at least until further notice. I have also made a list of super-foods as I like to call them, vegetables high in micronutrients and low in carbs and also others high in fiber. I actually managed to search these foods in the USDA database and rank them from top to bottom, depending on the micronutrient. This way I know how to get the richest foods that are less calorie dense. I could say I’ve had some revelations along the way.
I’ve had many people ask for a Keto Grocery List. At first, I was hesitant because I am a picky eater and tend to stick to the same foods over and over. I know that most people eat a larger variety of foods than I do. At the same time, when I was researching Keto Grocery Lists, so many seemed overwhelming and included many foods that even after almost a year of following a Keto Diet I have never used.

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First off, I will say the ketogenic diet is not for everyone for their individual health reasons. However, reading through many of the posts where it didn’t work for people I would be willing to bet 90% of the time there is an obvious reason and no offense to that person but maybe a little more research would have helped. Something as simple as consciously increasing salt intake, or taking a multi-vitamin to get the minerals you need could help. Everyone’s body is different and some people can’t eat as much cheese for example (like my wife), as others can. If you feel off, or just don’t feel right before abandoning the diet please look up your symptoms and see if there’s a simple fix. It can really be worth it.
The only difficulty with some of these studies is that they tend to have small sample sizes, like this one that only has five cyclist participants and the data was largely skewed by the fact that only ONE cyclist experienced a large enhancement of exercise capacity after the keto diet. Their studies also tend to be short term. Back in 2014, Phinney and scientist Tim Noakes wrote an editorial that stated that in the past 31 years, there have only been a handful of studies measuring sports performance and low carb diets. Out of a total of 11, only 3 found exercise improvements.
I think every body responds to diets differently. What works for one person doesn’t work for another. There is not true, standard diet that’s one-size-fits-all. My sister eats a diet of mostly carbs and very little protein – and she functions just fine on this. Personally, even a moderate amount of carbs gives me brain fog, fatigue, irritability, and bloat.
I am also a proponent of the ketogenic lifestyle. I am a healthy eater and have studied nutrition and enjoy cooking. As a person managing hypothyroidism I found losing weight by calorie restriction very difficult and it suppressed my thyroid. I continued researching and found an online site that gave me sufficient medical videos to start to understand how to be ketogenic in a healthy way.

On a ketogenic diet, your entire body switches its fuel supply to run mostly on fat, burning fat 24-7. When insulin levels become very low, fat burning can increase dramatically. It becomes easier to access your fat stores to burn them off. This is great if you’re trying to lose weight, but there are also other less obvious benefits, such as less hunger and a steady supply of energy. This may help keep you alert and focused.

I disagree with you. A calorie deficit leading to weight loss for YOU should be not accepted as a reasonable method for ALL. Also, a 5% weight loss is enough to show improvements in blood pressure, blood sugar and lipids. It doesn’t mean the ketosis caused it, but rather the reduction in weight which could just be from the calorie deficit. Additionally, if you enjoy carbs occasionally then you are not in ketosis and could be following a modified low carb diet. Using evidenced-based research findings is not spouting off guidelines- it is science. And when you’re dealing with hundreds, thousands and millions of different individuals each presenting with their own unique set of risks, genetics, behaviors and history -that must be taken into consideration for any weight management plan. It is more complicated than how you presented it above. Also, I don’t believe Abbey is calling it a “fad diet” but she is explaining that the specific ketogenic diet plan that is being described in mainstream media is a current trend, which is undeniable. It is such a trend that there is no long term research study yet because that is how new to the scene it is.

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